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Investigators obtained specimens of participants' quadriceps at rest, immediately after massage, and after a 2.5-hour recovery period.
Using whole-genome microarrays, Tarnopolsky and colleagues examined gene expression associated with massage and then performed targeted reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies, analyzed protein signaling, and quantified metabolite production.
As compared with baseline values, muscle tissue from the control leg exhibited changes in expression of 592 genes 30 minutes after exercise and 1,309 genes after the recovery period. Investigators identified five genes that exhibited changes in expression immediately after massage and four genes that differed in expression levels after the recovery period.